Chúa Thánh Thần và hội nhập văn hóa
Thần Khí Chúa hay Chúa Thánh Thần là tác nhân chính yếu trong kế hoạch Thiên Chúa đối với sự hiện hữu và phát triển của nhân loại. 
Đó là lý do giải thích tại sao nhân loại không bao giờ mất ý thức về sự hiện diện và hoạt động của Chúa Thánh Thần trong các nền văn hóa.
Chúa Thánh Thần hiện diện trong tâm thức con người trên bình diện cá nhân và cộng đoàn. Đặc biệt, Chúa Thánh Thần hiện diện trong sự khôn ngoan, tư tưởng, cũng như những gì thiện hảo nơi con người thuộc tất cả các nền văn hóa trước Biến Cố Đức Giêsu.
Khi thời gian tới thời viên mãn, Chúa Thánh Thần hiện diện cùng Đức Giêsu trong việc nhập thể và tiếp tục hiện diện với Người trong hành trình dương thế. Sau khi Đức Giêsu phục sinh, qua các môn đệ, Chúa Thánh Thần tiếp tục sứ mệnh của Đức Giêsu cho đến tận thế. 
Suy tư, tìm hiểu kinh nghiệm của các môn đệ Đức Giêsu và các tác giả Tân Ước, chúng ta sẽ hiểu rõ hơn về căn tính và vai trò của Chúa Thánh Thần. Qua đó, Chúa Thánh Thần không chỉ là gió, hơi thở hay quyền năng của Thiên Chúa. Đúng hơn, Chúa Thánh Thần là Thiên Chúa cũng như Đức Giêsu là Thiên Chúa. Chúa Thánh Thần luôn đồng hành với Đức Giêsu để giảng giải Lời Chúa, làm những việc Đức Giêsu đã làm và tiếp tục sứ mệnh của Đức Giêsu cho đến tận thế.
Đặc biệt, Chúa Thánh Thần luôn ở với các môn đệ Đức Giêsu trên hành trình loan báo Tin Mừng cho các nền văn hóa trong gia đình nhân loại. Chúa Thánh Thần cũng là tác nhân linh hứng cho tất cả mọi người đáp lại lời mời gọi của Ngôi Lời vĩnh cửu, Đức Giêsu, Đấng thông dự vào môi trường nhân loại để diễn tả sự hiệp thông của Thiên Chúa với nhân loại cũng như muôn vật muôn loài trong thế giới thụ tạo.
Chúa Thánh Thần trở thành tác nhân chính của việc hội nhập giáo huấn Đức Giêsu vào các nền văn hóa. Lễ Ngũ Tuần trở thành sự kiện ý nghĩa, từ đây, các môn đệ Đức Giêsu được tràn đầy ơn Chúa Thánh Thần để tiếp tục sứ mệnh cứu độ của Thiên Chúa.
Tại Lễ Ngũ Tuần, các môn đệ Đức Giêsu quy tụ lại như cộng đoàn mới là Giáo Hội, để thực thi sứ mệnh đem Tin Mừng đến mọi nền văn hóa (hội nhập văn hóa) với niềm xác tín rằng Thánh Thần của Thiên Chúa, cũng là Thánh Thần của Đức Giêsu, và cũng là Thánh Thần hoạt động trong Giáo Hội. 
Các môn đệ Đức Giêsu luôn tin tưởng rằng Chúa Thánh Thần hiện diện trong các nền văn hóa, truyền thống và tôn giáo để quy tụ tất cả mọi người về với Thiên Chúa. Vì thế, sứ mệnh hội nhập văn hóa là sứ mệnh của Chúa Thánh Thần với sự cộng tác của những ai đặt niềm tin vào Biến Cố Đức Giêsu và nhận thức rằng Biến Cố này đem lại ơn cứu độ cho tất cả mọi người trong gia đình nhân loại.
Trích Bản tin Hiệp Thông / HĐGM VN, Số 121 (Tháng 11 & 12 năm 2020)
Giám mục Phêrô Nguyễn Văn Viên
Xem C. K. Barrett, Holy Spirit and the Gospel Tradition (London: Billing and Sons, 1954), 123.
Xem Jurgen Moltmann, The Spirit of Life (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992),40.
Xem Daniel J. Harrington, The Church according to the New Testament (Chicago: Sheed and Ward, 2001), 16.
Xem Jacques Dupuis, Jesus Christ at the Encounter of World Religions, trans. Robert Barr (New York: Orbis Books, 1989), 175.
(Gen 1:1-2): “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters.”
The motif of the relationship of the words of God and the spirit of God in creation is pervasive through almost all the books of Scripture. For example, in Ps 33:6, we read that “by the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and all their host by the breath of his mouth.”
Xem Athanasius, in The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons,ed. Thomas Torrance (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1996), 149.
Xem Athanasius, “Epistle 1.31 to Bishop Serapion concerning the Spirit”, in The Letters of Saint Athanasius, d. C. R. B. Shapland (London: The Epworth Press, 1951), 64
Jurgen Moltmann, The Spirit of Life, 54.
Jurgen Moltmann, The Spirit of Life, 41.
Xem The New Jerome Bible Handbook, ed. Raymond Brown and Others (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1993), 412.
Xem Mary Donovan Turner, Old Testament Words (Missouri: Chalice Press, 2003), 95.
Xem Robert P. Menzies, The Development of Early Christian Pneumatology (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991), 61-63.
Xem George T. Montague, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition (New York: Paulist Press, 1976), 6
Edward Schweizer, Spirit of God (London: Adam & Charles Black, 1960), 10.
(Num 11:25): “Then the LORD came down in the cloud and spoke to him [Moses] , and took some of the spirit that was upon him and put it upon the seventy elders; and when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied” (Num 11:25).
Xem Robert P. Menzies, The Development of Early Christian Pneumatology,55.
Origen, in David Friedrich Strauss, “History and Myth”, in The Historical Jesus Christ: Landmarks in the Search for the Jesus of History, ed. Gregory W Dawes (Louisville: Westminster John Know Press, 2000),94.
Fides et Ratio, 16. The encyclical Fides et Ratio was issued by John Paul II, 14 September 1998.
Robert P. Menzies, The Development of Early Christian Pneumatology, 76.
Saint Thomas Aquinas, in John Paul II, Fides et Ratio, 44. “Another of the great insights of Saint Thomas was his perception of the role of the Holy Spirit in the process by which knowledge matures into wisdom. From the first pages of his Summa Theologiae [Cf. I, 1,6: “Praeterea, haec doctrina per studium acquiritur. Sapientia autem per infusionem habetur, unde inter septem dona Spiritus Sancti connumeratur”], Aquinas was keen to show the primacy of the wisdom which is the gift of the Holy Spirit and which opens the way to knowledge of divine realities.``
Xem Jurgen Moltmann, The Spirit of Life, 46.
Xem George T. Montague, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition,91.
Bernard Lonergan, Method in Theology (New York: The Seabury Press, 1979), 283.
Theologically, self-denial in Buddhism and in Christianity is different. The purpose of Buddhist self-denial is to achieve Enlightenment (state of non-being), while the purpose of Christian self-denial is about being full with the Spirit.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Writings in Time of War, trans. René Hague (London: Collins, 1968), 154. The word ‘Spirit' used by Teilhard de Chardin in this place could not be understood as the personal Spirit of the Trinity.
Rather, Teilhard de Chardin considers ‘Spirit' as the dynamic source of universal evolution
Xem Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Human Energy, trans. J. M. Cohen (London: Collins, 1969), 95.
Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 52. Geertz says: “Man is to be defined neither by his innate capacities alone, as the Enlightenment sought to do, nor by his actual behaviors alone, as much of contemporary social science seeks to do, but rather by the link between them, by the way in which the first is transformed into the second, his generic potentialities focused into his specific performances.”
Xem Pope John Paul II, Fides et Ratio, 2-3.
Redemptoris Missio, 17. The encyclical Redemptoris Missio: On the Permanent Validity of the Church's Missionary Mandate was issued by John Paul II, 12 July 1990.
Claude Geffré, The Risk of Interpretation: On Being Faithful to the Christian Tradition in a Non-Christian Age (New York: Paulist Press, 1987), 239.
Anthony Bellagamba, Mission & Ministry in the Global Church (New York: Orbis Books, 1992), 121.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Human Energy, 32.
Karl Rahner, The Trinity (London: Burns and Oates, 1970), 99.
Xem Athanasius, “Epistle 1.30 to Bishop Serapion concerning the Spirit”, in The Letters of Saint Athanasius, ed. C. R. B. Shapland (London: The Epworth Press, 1951), 142.
Michael E. Lodahl, Shekhinah/Spirit: Divine Presence in Jewish and Christian Religion (New York: Paulist Press, 1992), 41.
Xem Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Human Energy, 28.
Xem Edward Schweizer, Spirit of God, 15.
Horacio de la Costa, “The Asian Concept of Justice”, in Inculturation, Faith and Christian Life, ed. Jaime C. Bulatao and Others (Manila: Loyola Press, 1978), 32. Costa observes that “the pre-Spanish Filipinos had little or no concept of the rationality of nature, of its being an ordered universe, a cosmos. The spirits of wind and rain, fire and water, stream and sea did not operate according to law, but were unpredictable, indeed, capricious in their
behaviour; and so had to be propitiated ceaselessly.”
Xem Vicente M. Marasigan, “Amen: Let the People Be”, in Inculturation, Faith and Christian Life, ed. Jaime C. Bulatao (Manila: Loyola Press, 1978), 52.
Stephen B. Bevans, Models of Contextual Theology (New York: Orbis Books, 1998), 56.
Redemptoris Missio, 29.
Xem Ary A. Roest Crollius, “Inculturation and the Meaning of Culture”, Gregorianum 61 (1980): 261.
Xem Louis-Marie Chauvet, Sacrament and Symbol: A sacramental Reinterpretation ofChristian Existence (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1993), 172.
Xem George T. Montague, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition274.
George T. Montague, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition, 274.
In Christianity, Pentecost is celebrated 50 days after Easter or 10 days after the Ascension of the Risen Lord.
Gordon Fee, Paul, the Spirit and the People of God (London: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997), 21.
Xem Robert P. Menzies, The Development of Early Christian Pneumatology, 278
Xem Wilbert R. Shenk, “The Mission Dynamic”, in Mission in Bold Humility, ed. Willem Saayman and Klippies Kritzinger (New York: Orbis Books, 1996), 88.
Ary A. Roest Crollius, “Inculturation: From Babel to Pentecost”, in Creative Inculturation and the Unity of Faith, ed. Ary A. Roest Crollius and Others (Rome: Pontifical Gregorian University, 1986), 4.
Fides et Ratio, 68: “In the New Testament, human life is much less governed by prescriptions than in the Old Testament. Life in the Spirit leads believers to a freedom and responsibility which surpass the Law.”
Jürgen Moltmann, The Spirit of Life, 9. According to Moltmann, “the redeeming Spirit of Christ cannot be any Spirit other than Yahweh’s creative ruah.”
Samuel Rayan, The Holy Spirit: Heart of the Gospel and Christian Hope (New York: Orbis Books, 1978), 13.
Gordon Fee, Paul, the Spirit and the People of God, 33.
Robert P. Menzies, The Development of Early Christian Pneumatology, 317
Karl Barth, Dogmatics in Outline, trans. G. T. Thomson (New York: Harper & Row, 1959), 138.
Xem Karl Rahner, The Trinity, 85
Xem Samuel Rayan, The Holy Spirit: Heart of the Gospel and Christian Hope, 6. Concerning the role of God’s Spirit in creation and God’s Spirit at the Annunciation to Mary, Rayan says that “here the Virgin, representing the earth, representing the waters of the new creation, was hovered over by the Holy Spirit, and the result was the new creation, Jesus Christ.”
Xem James D. G. Dunn, Jesus and the Spirit (London: SCM Press, 1988), 62.
René Laurentin, Catholic Pentecostalism (London: Doubleday, 1977), 61. According to Laurentin, ‘to speak in tongues’ occurs twenty times in the New Testament
Samuel Rayan, The Holy Spirit: Heart of the Gospel and Christian Hope, 13.
Zoltán Alszeghy, “Cultural Adaptation as an Internal Requirement of Faith”, in Gregorianum 63 (1982): 83.
Redemptoris Missio, 21.
Dom Thierry Maertens, “The Spirit of God in Scripture”, in The Living Word Series 6, ed. Gerard S. Sloyan (Dublin: Helicon Press, 1966), 55.
Karl Rahner, Servants of the Lord, trans. Richard Strachan (New York: Herder and Herder, 1969), 123-124.
George T. Montague, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition, 275
Daniel J. Harrington, The Light of all Nations (Delaware: Michel Glazier, 1982), 50.
The disciples were called Christians for the first time in Antioch (Acts 11:26).
(Acts 2:7-11): “And they were amazed and wondered, saying, are not all these who are speaking Galileans? And how is it that we hear, each of us in his own native language? Parthians and Medes and Elamites and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya belonging to Cyrene, and visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabians, we hear them telling in our own tongues the mighty works of God.”
(Joel 2:28): “And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit on all flesh; your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions.”
(Acts 10:44-46): “While Peter was still saying this, the Holy Spirit fell on all who heard the word. And the believers from among the circumcised who came with Peter were amazed, because the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out even on the Gentiles. For they heard them speaking in tongues and extolling God.”
The word ‘church’ appears the first time in the Acts of the apostles (Acts 5:11).
The World Council of Churches at Canberra: Signs of the Spirit, ed. Michael Kinnamon (Geneva: WCC Publications, 1991), 113.
Xem Bible Dictionary, ‘the Holy Spirit’, ed. Paul J. Achtemeier and Others (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1996), 432.
Xem John Wijngaards, The Spirit in John (Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1988), 21.
Xem James D. G. Dunn, Jesus and the Spirit, 352.
Xem Francis J. Moloney, “Johannine Theology”, in The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, ed. Raymond Brown and Others (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1990), 1424-1425
Yves Congar, I Believe in the Holy Spirit, trans. David Smith (New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 2001), 54-55.
Xem Francis J. Moloney, “Johannine Theology”, 1422.
Xem Craig R. Koester, Symbolism in the Fourth Gospel (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995), 167.
Xem Raymond Brown, a Once -and- Coming Spirit at Pentecost (Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1994), 38.
Xem Pheme Perkins, “The Gospel according to John”, in The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, 955.
Xem John Wijngaards, The Spirit in John, 17.
Xem Joseph Osei-Bonsu, “The Spirit as Agent of Renewal: the New Testament Testimony”, The Ecumenical Review 41 (1989): 456.
Xem Jürgen Moltmann, Source: The Holy Spirit and the Theology of Life (Minneapolis: SCM Press, 1997), 74.
Xem Ralph Del Colle, Christ and the Spirit (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 101.
Dominum et Vivificantem, 25: Pope Paul John II says that “with the coming of the Spirit they [the disciples] felt capable of fulfilling the mission entrusted to them. They felt full of strength. It is precisely this that the Holy Spirit worked in them and this is continually at work in the Church, through their successors.” The encyclical Dominum et Vivificantem: On the Holy Spirit in the Life of the Church and the World was issued by John Paul II, 18 May 1986.
Xem William Loader, The Christology of the Fourth Gospel (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1992), 86.
George T. Montague, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition, 338. According to Montague, “the Spirit bore witness to Jesus at the baptism in the Jordan in the form of a dove (Jn 1:33-34) and upon the cross in the mysterious symbolism of blood and water (Jn 19:33-35).”
Xem Rodney A Whitacre, Johannine Polemic: The Role of Tradition and Theology (Chicago: Scholars Press, 1982), 98.
Xem Anne Primavesi and Jennifer Henderson, “The Witness of the Holy Spirit”, The ecumenical review 41 (1989): 430.
Xem Matthew Vellanickal, Studies in the Gospel of John (Bangalore: Asian Trading Corporation, 1982), 100.
Xem Andrew Apostoli, The Advocate: The Spirit of Truth (New York: The Society of St. Paul, 1999), 18. The Greek word ‘παρακλητος’ (Paraclete) can be translated as the Comforter, the Helper, the Consoler or the Intercessor. However, according to Andrew Apostoli, primarily, the biblical meaning of the Paraclete is the Advocate (the Lawyer).
Xem George Johnston, The Spirit-Advocate in the Gospel of John (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), 31.
Xem William Loader, The Christology of the Fourth Gospel, 86.
Xem Matthew Vellanickal, Studies in the Gospel of John, 95.
George T. Montague, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition, 368.
Xem Yves Congar, I Believe in the Holy Spirit, 55.
Xem D. Francois Tolmie, “The Characterization of God in the Fourth Gospel”, Journal for the Study of the New Testament 69 (1998): 69.
Xem Matthew Vellanickal, Studies in the Gospel of John, 104.
Xem D. Francois Tolmie, “The Characterization of God in the Fourth Gospel”, Journal for the Study of the New Testament 69 (1998): 74.
Together with the exploration of the relationship between the Father and the Son, the Pneumatology of the Johannine Gospel can be seen as the foundation for building up of the Trinitarian doctrine of the Nicene - Constantinopolitan Council (325-381).
Xem Edward Schweizer, “On Distinguishing Between Spirits”, The Ecumenical Review 41 (1989): 412.
David Coffey, “Grace: The Gift of the Holy Spirit”, Faith an Culture no.2 (Sydney: Catholic Institute of Sydney, 1979), 157.
Wilbert R. Shenk, “The Mission Dynamic”, 89.
Xem Dominum et Vivificantem, 25. Pope John Paul II says that “the Risen Christ came and ‘brought’ to the Apostles the Holy Spirit. He gave him to them, saying ‘Receive the Holy Spirit.’ What had then taken place inside the Upper Room, ‘the doors being shut,’ later, on the day of Pentecost is manifested also outside, in public. The doors of the Upper Room are opened and the Apostles go to the inhabitants and the pilgrims who had gathered in Jerusalem on the occasion of the feast, in order to bear witness to Christ in the power of the Holy Spirit.”
Lucien Richard, “Christology and the Needs for Limits: The Contextualization of Theology”, in One Faith, Many Cultures, ed. Ruy O. Costa (New York: Orbis Books, 1988), 56.
Xem James D. G. Dunn, Jesus and the Spirit, 318.
Xem James D. G. Dunn, Jesus and the Spirit, 323.
Hermann Gunkel, The Influence of the Holy Spirit, trans. Roy A. Harrisville and Philip A. Quanbeck (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979), 42.
Matthew L. Lamb, “Inculturation and Western Culture: the Dialogical Experience between Gospel and Culture”, Communio 21 (1994): 128. Lamb says that “the norm of the Gospel is the concrete Person of Jesus Christ, the Word Incarnate, as sent by the Father and with the Father sending the Spirit to inform the ongoing mission of the Church, to proclaim the Gospel and make disciples of all nations.”
Dei Verbum, 7: “The commission was fulfilled, too, by those Apostles and apostolic men who under the inspiration of the same Holy Spirit committed the message of salvation to writing.” The Constitution Dei Verbum: On Divine Revelation, issued the Second Vatican Council, 18 November 1965.
Dei Verbum, 11: “Since everything asserted by the inspired authors or sacred writers must be held to be asserted by the Holy Spirit, it follows that the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching solidly, faithfully and without error that truth which God wanted put into sacred writings for the sake of salvation.”
Matthew L. Lamb, “Inculturation and Western Culture: the Dialogical Experience between Gospel and Culture”, 129.
Dei Verbum, 8: “Through the same tradition the Church’s full canon of the sacred books is known, and the sacred writings themselves are more profoundly understood and unceasingly made active in her; and thus God, who spoke of old, uninterruptedly converses with the bride of His beloved Son; and the Holy Spirit, through whom the living voice of the Gospel resounds in the Church, and through her, in the world, leads unto all truth those who believe and makes the word of Christ dwell abundantly in them (Col. 3:16).”
Mariasusai Dhavamony, “The Christian Theology of Inculturation”, 36.
John Thornhill, Sign and Promise: A Theology of the Church for a Changing World (London: Collins Liturgical Publications, 1988), 49. According to Thornhill, “in Acts, Luke reflects another outlook: the Church must face its moments of crisis sustained by a sense of continuity with its past history, a history in which crises have been survived through the intervention of the Spirit.”
Karl Barth, Dogmatics in Outline, 140.
The World Council of Churches at Canberra: Signs of the Spirit, 117. The World Council of Churches signifies that “not every spirit is of the Holy Spirit. The primary criterion for discerning the Holy Spirit is that the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Christ; it points to the cross and resurrection and witnesses to the Lordship of Christ.”
Xem Daniel J. Harrington, The Church according to the New Testament, 67.
Xem International Theological Commission, “Faith and Inculturation”, Origins 18 (1989): 801.
Xem Mariasusai Dhavamony, “The Christian Theology of Inculturation”, 3.
Claude Geffré, The Risk of Interpretation: On Being Faithful to the Christian Tradition in a Non-Christian Age, 240.
Ravi Santosh Kamath, “Inculturation or Inreligionization?”, Ecumenical Review 39 (1987): 175.
Redemptoris Missio, 28.
J. B. Banawiratma, “A Pneumatological Approach to Inculturation”, in Building the Church in Pluricultural Asia, ed. Robert Hardawiryana and Others (Rome: Pontifical Gregorian University, 1989), 95.
Wilbert R. Shenk, “The Mission Dynamic”, 89.
Xem John Paul II, in Quelle Joie, “Carry the Authentic Gospel to the African Culture”, in The Pope Speaks 25 (1980): 299.
Mariasusai Dhavamony, “The Christian Theology of Inculturation”, 38.
Xem Yves Congar, I Believe in the Holy Spirit, 5.
Daniel J. Harrington, The Church according to the New Testament, 68.
The World Council of Churches at Canberra: Signs of the Spirit, 113.
Hermann Gunkel, The Influence of the Holy Spirit, 84.
Xem Carolyn Osiek, What Are They Saying about the Social Setting of the New Testament (New York: Paulist Press, 1992), 75.
D.S. Amalorpavadass, “Theological Reflections on Inculturation”, 51.
J. B. Banawiratma, “A Pneumatological Approach to inculturation”, 92. In a figurative way, J. B. Banawiratma says that “the Holy Spirit in the Church is not like a bird in a cage. The Holy Spirit is free; the works of the Holy Spirit can not be limited by the organisational form of the Church. The Holy Spirit works also in the world, in the cultural and religious traditions which are not professing the name of Jesus Christ.”
Xem Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, The Phenomenon of Man, trans. Bernard Wall (London: William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd, 1959), 278.
The World Council of Churches at Canberra: Signs of the Spirit, 31. “All things are sanctified by the Holy Spirit, from the beginning of creation, when he hovered over the abyss, and now in nature, in heaven and on earth, in humanity, in all beings, in every living soul.”
Xem Jacques Dupuis, Jesus Christ at the Encounter of World Religions, 167.